we know an awful lot about the atom, and yet it is the tiniest thing that we can imagine. atoms have been completely studied, without ever looking at one directly. How can this happen? how can we discover pieces of the atom and their properties without observing them? We do so THROUGH their properties! due to magnetism and the charge of the individual parts of the atom, we were able to see the reactions with more thoroughly understood things such as gasses, using cathode ray tubes to discover electrons and later using alpha particles bounced off of the nucleus to discover the proton. we use the known world to discover the unknown, using the products to determine the factors, and using anything we can to learn more about the world today.